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  1. #25
    Član od
    Panchevo, Serbia; Moscow, Russia
    GTL - Grand Tourismo Lux
    (Zastava 101 1984-1986)
    Što više za što manje

  2. #26
    Član od
    Novi Beograd, kicblo
    Abbreviation for Anti-Lock Braking System.

    ABS Pressure Switch
    Sensor that monitors hydraulic system pressure and controls pump motor in an ABS application.

    Alternating current.

    Acceleration Sensor
    Provides acceleration data to computer in electronic shock absorber system.

    Accelerator Pump
    Device to force a fuel stream into air horn as needed

    Accessory Systems
    Those that increase comfort or are a convenience for vehicle occupants, such as air conditioning or power windows, and a window defogger.

    Air conditioning system component that removes moisture and stores extra refrigerant

    AC Generator
    Device that produces alternating current; an alternator.

    Active Sensor
    One that generates its own voltage signal in response to a change in a condition

    Active Suspension System
    A method of ride control using hydraulic rams, rather than conventional shock absorbers and springs

    Actuator Device that performs an action or outputs a signal in response to a signal from a computer.

    Substance used to chemically and mechanically bond two materials together

    Adjustable Rocker Arm
    Used with mechanical lifters; permits changing valve train clearance.

    Air Blowgun
    Tool used to blow off bits of dirt, solvent, or other debris from parts.

    Air Chisel
    A cutting tool powered by compressed air that is used to remove faulty exhaust system parts.

    Air Cleaner Carbon Element
    A canister of carbon granules that absorbs fuel vapors when engine is shut off.

    Air Compressor
    A pump that forces air, under pressure, into a storage tank.

    Air Cooling system
    The use of cooling fins and air movement to dissipate heat from the engine.

    Airflow Sensor
    Device to monitor flow of outside air into engine.

    Air Horn
    Part of the carburetor that channels air into the intake manifold.

    Air Injection System
    A method of reducing HC and CO emissions by forcing fresh air into the exhaust ports of the engine.

    Air Jet Chamber
    One that uses an injected stream of air for improved fuel mixing and combustion.

    Air Pollution
    Release of harmful substances into the air due to engine operation and similar causes.

    Air Pump
    Belt-driven pump that provides input for the air injection system.

    Air Shocks
    Shock absorbers that use air pressure, rather than springs, to maintain vehicle height.

    Air Spring
    Air-filled rubber cylinder that is lighter than the equivalent coil spring.

    Air Tests
    The use of air pressure to diagnose automatic transmission problems.

    Air Tool
    A tool powered by compressed air.

    Assembly line diagnostic link, also called the diagnostic connector.

    Alignment Rack
    Fixture onto which the vehicle is driven for alignment measurement and adjustment activities.

    Alternate Engine
    Engine types other than traditional internal combustion, four-stoke-cycle, piston engine.

    Alternate Fuel
    Fuels other than gasoline and diesel fuel.

    An AC generator.

    Alternator Bearings
    Needle or ball-type bearings used 10 provide a low-friction surface for a rotor.

    Altitude Compensator
    A system that changes the air-fuel ratio as the vehicle moves to higher or lower elevations.

    Amplitude modulation (type of radio broadcasting).

    Ambient Temperature Switch
    One that prevents air conditioner operation when outdoor temperatures are below a set point.

    Electronic circuit that uses a small current to control a much larger current.

    To increase in strength or volume.

    Anaerobic Sealer
    A sealer that cures in the absence or air.

    A signal that can vary continuously in value.

    Analog Signal
    One that continually changes strength. Analog voltmeter code Trouble code read by counting the number of needle deflections on a meter.

    Antenna Trimmer
    Adjustment screw on a radio, used to obtain best reception.

    Liquid used in a cooling system that is mixed with water and prevents the water from freezing. The solution serves as the engine coolant.

    Antifreeze Strength
    Measurement of concentration of coolant solution.

    Antifriction Bearing
    Bearing that uses balls or rollers to decrease friction.

    Anti-Lock Brake Computer
    ECM that accepts wheel sensor inputs and controls braking of the vehicle.

    Anti-Lock Brakes
    Computer-controlled brakes that will not "lock" and permit wheels to skid.

    Anti-Rattle Clips
    Metal components designed to keep brake pads from vibrating and rattling.

    Anti-Skid System
    Another name for anti-lock braking system.

    Apprentice Mechanic
    A beginner who is learning under direction of an experienced auto technician.

    Rotating support for multiple windings in a motor.

    A mineral material once widely used on clutches and brake linings. Asbestos dust is a known cancer-causing agent.

    Asbestos Lining
    Anti-friction material once widely used for brake linings.

    Abbreviation for National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence, which certifies auto technicians.

    Aspect Ratio
    The relationship of tire height to width, or profile.

    Death resulting From lack of oxygen to breathe.

    Atmospheric Pressure
    The pressure exerted by the Earth's atmosphere (14.7 psi at sea level).

    Automatic Clutch Adjuster
    A mechanism designed to automatically remove any play from a clutch cable system.

    Automatic Temperature Control System
    A method of climate control using sensors and a computer to maintain a preset temperature in the vehicle's passenger compartment.

    Automatic Transmission
    One that does not have to be shifted manually.

    Automatic Transmission Electronic Controls
    Computerized selection of shift points, based on input from sensors.

    Automatic Transmission Fluid
    Oil with special additives to make it compatible with Friction clutches arid bands.

    Automatic Transmission Slippage
    Condition in which engine races as transmission shifts (in severe cases, the car may not move at all).

    Automotive Clutch
    A mechanical device used to connect and disconnect a manual I transmission from engine power.

    Auto Technician's Certification
    A program in which technicians take written tests to become certified by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE).

    Auxiliary Chain
    A chain and sprocket combination used to drive engine auxiliaries, such as the oil pump.

    Axle C-clip
    Spring steel retainer that fits in a groove on the axle end.

    Axle End Play
    In-and-out movement OF the axle, adjusted to specification by using shims.

    Axle Retainer Plate
    See axle shaft retainer.

    Axle Shaft Retainer
    Devices that attach to the outside of an axle housing to prevent axles from sliding out.

    Axle Shims
    Used between axle housing and retainer to limit end play of the axle.

    Condition caused by air-fuel mixture igniting in the intake manifold or exhaust system.

    Backing Plate
    Component that holds the shoes, wheel cylinder, and other parts inside a drum brake.

    Back Pressure
    Pressure developed in the exhaust system when the engine is running.

    Backup Light Switch
    An electrical switch that completes a circuit to the back up lights whenever the reverse gear if engaged.

    Bad Hydraulic Lifter
    A cause of valve clatter.

    Balancer Shaft
    A Rotating component used in some engines to cancel vibration produced by another rotating shaft such as the crankshaft.

    Ball and Trunnion U-joint
    A seldom-used type of constant velocity U-joint.

    Ball Joint
    Swivel joint that provides free movement for steering knuckle and control arm.

    Ball Joint Balloon Seal
    An airtight seal used to protect the ball joint

    Ball Joint Wear Indicator
    An indicator on the shoulder of the ball joint that shows the amount of wear.

    Ball Nut
    Component that rides up and down a worm gear as the worm rotates in a recirculating ball gearbox.

    Ball Sockets
    Components that allow motion in up-and-down and side-to-side direction.

    A metal strap with a frictional material lining that can clamp a clutch drum in an automatic transmission to stop its rotation.

    Band Adjustment
    Check and adjusting the tightness of automatic transmission band for proper automatic transmission shifting and driving conditions.

    Bare Cylinder Head
    A head with all of its components removed including valves, springs, seals, etc.

    A cylinder.

    Basic Circuit Problem
    One caused by something in the circuit itself that increases or decreases an electrical value.

    Battery Activation
    To fill with electrolyte then charging a dry battery.

    Battery Cables
    Heavy gauged wires connected to the battery. Typically two are used. One, connects the battery to the starter (positive) and the second from the battery to a grounding point on the vehicle.

    Battery Charge Condition
    The state of its plates and electrolyte.

    Battery Charger
    Device for restoring battery to a proper electrical charge.

    Battery Drain Test
    A method of checking for unusual current draw with ignition key off.

    Battery Leakage Test
    Check to determine if current is discharging across top of battery case.

    Battery Load Test
    A test for battery capacity, made under full electrical load.

    Battery Terminal Test
    A test for good contact between cables and terminals.

    Battery Voltage
    For batteries used in modern cars, 12.6V; older cars, 6.3V.

    Battery Voltage Test
    Check of battery charge with a voltmeter.

    Bottom Dead Center. The lowest position a piston can reach with in its cylinder.

    Bearing Clearance
    Small space between moving parts, permitting oil to enter for lubrication.

    Bearing Crush
    Slight oversize of bearings to jam them in place when cap is tightened on connecting rod.

    Bearing Housing
    Section of the turbocharger housing containing the shaft bearings and oil seals.

    Bearing Noise
    Constant whir or humming sound due to damage or wear of bearings in the carrier or axle assemblies.

    Bearing Packer
    Tool used to simplify packing of grease into wheel bearings.

    Bearing Spread
    Practice of making bearing halves slightly wider than necessary to hold them in place during installation.

    Bell Housing
    The metal shell surrounding the clutch assembly that bolts to the rear of the engine.

    Belted Bias Tire
    A bias-ply tire with extra belts added beneath the tread area.

    Fabric made of steel or other material that is placed between body plies and tread.

    Belt Squeal
    Noise resulting from a slipping drive belt.

    Bench Bleed
    Method of filling and hand-pumping a master cylinder before installation to remove trapped air.

    Bent Push Rod
    A cause of valve clatter. Bent rods usually must be replaced.

    Abbreviation for brake horsepower, a measurement of usable horsepower of an engine.

    Bias Ply Tire
    One with plies running at an angle from bead to bead.

    Bleeder Screw
    Fitting on top of brake caliper that allows air to be bled from system.

    Process of removing any trapped air from a hydraulic system.

    Block Diagram
    A simple drawing, using rectangles and lines, that shows how sensors, computers, and actuators are interconnected.

    Block Heater
    A heating device used to warm the block of a diesel engine in cold weather.

    Block Line Boring
    A technique used to "true" misaligned main bearing bores.

    Oil vapors and other emissions that leak past piston rings into the crankcase.

    A fan that forces air to move tough the evaporator of an air conditioning system.

    Blow Gun
    An air-powered device used for cleaning and drying parts washed in solvent, or blowing away accumulations of dust and dirt.

    Blown Head Gasket
    Leak of compression from one or more cylinders results from failure of the gasket.

    Blow-through Turbo
    A turbocharger located ahead of the compressor or throttle body. It compresses only air.

    Body Lubrication
    Applying oil and grease to such friction points as hinges and latches.

    Boiling a Block
    Cleaning technique in which strong solvents and heat are used to remove mineral deposits from the water jacket.

    Bolt Size
    Measurement of the outside thread diameter.

    Boost Pressure
    The additional amount of pressure supplied to the intake system produced by a turbocharger or blower.

    Flexible pleated covers placed over the CV joints of a front-wheel-drive vehicle to keep road dirt out of them.

    Boot Deterioration
    Cracking, tearing, or other damage to a boot, which would allow road dirt and moisture to enter the CV-joint.

    Bowl Vent
    Passageway that prevents a pressure buildup in fuel bowl.

    Box End
    A wrench that has completely closed ends that surround and grip a bolt head.

    Brake Booster
    Component operated by vacuum or power steering system to decrease braking effort needed.

    Brake Lines
    Metal tubing and rubber hoses connecting master cylinder to wheel brake assemblies.

    Brake Pads
    Replaceable friction surfaces mounted on caliper of disc brake system.

    Brake Pedal Assembly
    Foot lever for operating brake system.

    Brake Pedal Vibration
    Pulsing movement of brake pedal, usually caused by out-of-round brake drum or warped rotor.

    Brake Sensor
    Provides braking data to computer in electronic shock absorber system.

    Brake Shoes
    Curved, replaceable friction surfaces used with drum-type brakes.

    Brake System
    Components that are used to stop a vehicle.

    Brake System Flushing
    Removal of all old fluid by pressure bleeding, then replacing it with fresh fluid.

    Brake Warning Light
    Dashboard indicator that warns of low brake system hydraulic pressure.

    Braking Ratio
    Comparison of front wheel to rear wheel braking effort.

    Break-Away Torque
    In a limited-slip differential, the amount of torque needed to make one axle rotate the clutches.

    Sliding electrical contacts that ride on the slip rings of a generator.

    British thermal units; the units used to measure heat transfer.

    Bubbling Sight Glass
    A sign that the air conditioning system is low on refrigerant and that air may be present.

    Burned Fluid
    Condition caused by overheating due to slippage of transmission bands.

    Burned Piston
    Actual melting or breakage of a part of the piston, resulting in a hole.

    Burned Valve
    Valve face damaged by heat, allowing leakage of air-fuel mixture from cylinder during compression.

    A pathway for data inside a computer.

    Bypass Lubrication System
    One that filters only some of the oil going to bearings.

    Bypass Valve
    Method used to permit coolant circulation in engine when thermostat is closed.

    Calibration Fluid
    A fluid that is less flammable than diesel fuel, used when testing injectors out of the engine.

    The component that houses disc brake pads on both sides of the brake rotor and are forced together through applied brake fluid pressure to stop the rotor from turning, thus stopping the car. It is also the name of a tool to measure small inside and outside diameters.

    The inward or outward tilt of a wheel assembly.

    Cam Ground Piston
    One that is ground slightly out of round to compensate for different rates of expansion.

    Cam Lobe Wear
    Reduces valve lift, causing reduced engine power and rough idle.

    Rotating shaft with lobes that open valves at the correct times for proper engine operation.

    Camshaft Drive
    Gears, a chain and sprockets, or a belt and sprockets that run the camshaft at half the speed of crankshaft rotation.

    Camshaft Lift
    Amount of valve train movement produced by the cam lobe.

    Cam Thrust Plate
    Component that limits front-to-rear movement of camshaft.

    Cap Pressure Rating
    Pressure at which the cap valve opens to vent coolant to the overflow tube or recovery tank.

    Covers over cell openings on top of a battery.

    Carbon Trace
    Small line of conductive carbon-like material on a distributor cap or rotor.

    Carburetor Cleaner
    A chemical used to dissolve gums and material from carburetor parts.

    Carburetor Flooding
    Excess fuel flow, preventing starting of engine.

    Carburetor Fuel System
    One that mixes air and fuel and directs it to engine cylinders through an intake manifold.

    Carburetor Kit
    Gaskets, needle valves, and other parts needed to rebuild a carburetor.

    Carburetor Rebuild
    Overhaul, with cleaning and part replacement.

    Carburetor System
    Network of passages that control the air-fuel ratio under specific engine conditions.

    Cartridge Oil Filter
    One with a replaceable filter element.

    The outer protective shell of a battery, or any other component or device.

    Case Bearing Preload
    Amount of force pushing differential case bearings together.

    Forward or backward tilt of steering knuckle.

    Caster-Camber Bubble Gauge
    Instrument with bubbles that indicate degree of tilt.

    Catalytic Converter
    Device in the exhaust system that oxidizes most harmful emissions from the engine.

    An electrical energy storage device, consisting of negative and positive plates immersed in a conductive fluid (electrolyte).

    Cell Voltage Test
    Check of individual battery cells for correct charge.

    Center Support Bearing
    A ball or roller bearing unit that supports the middle of a two-piece drive shaft.

    Centrifugal Advance
    A system that uses pivoting weights to advance timing as engine speed increases.

    Certified Master Technician
    Auto technician who has passed all eight ASE tests.

    Certified Technician
    Auto technician who has passed at least one ASE test.

    Cetane Number
    An indication of the cold-starting ability of a diesel fuel.

    Cubic feet of air per minute.

    Chain Slap
    Flapping motion of chain if slack is permitted.

    Charcoal Canister
    Unit that traps and stores fuel vapors when engine is not running.

    Charge Indicators
    Dash-mounted warning light, voltmeter, or ammeter used to show charging system status. Also the visual symbol (often a green dot) that shows state of charge in a battery.

    Current flowing into a battery from an alternator. Also, adding new or recycled refrigerant to an air conditioning or refrigeration system.

    Charging Station
    Usually, a wheeled cart containing a tank of refrigerant, vacuum pump, and manifold set for adding refrigerant to an air conditioning system.

    Charging System
    One that uses an alternator to replace the electrical energy drawn from the battery during starting.

    Charging System Output Test
    A measurement of current and voltage output of the charging system under load.

    Charging Voltage
    Alternator output that is higher than battery voltage (usually 1 3V- I 5V).

    The frame and other parts of a vehicle other than the body.

    Check Valve
    Valve that permits fuel flow in only one direction.

    Chemical Burns
    Injury to the skin from exposure to toxic or corrosive chemical substances.

    Chemical Flushing
    Method of removing scale buildup, using a strong chemical and water flush.

    Cubic inch displacement.

    Circuit Board
    A base upon which computer circuits are printed and components are mounted.

    Circuit Breaker
    Device that interrupts current if a circuit is overloaded or a short occurs. Unlike a fuse, it can be reset.

    Circuit Resistance Tests
    Measurements of resistance in the insulated and ground circuits of the system.

    Clear Sight Glass
    A sign that the air conditioning system is operating properly.

    Climate Control Computer
    ECM that controls temperature levels in the vehicle's passenger compartment.

    Clogged Heater Core
    One that restricts or blocks flow of coolant, due to an accumulation of rust particles.

    Closed Loop
    Control system that is constantly changing, based on inputs from sensors.

    Closed System
    Cooling system using a recovery tank for coolant.

    Cloud Point
    Temperature at which wax separates out of the fuel.

    Cloudy Sight Glass
    A sign that desiccant from the receiver-drier is circulating through the air conditioning system.

    Device that allows the driver to engage or disengage the engine and transmission.

    Clutch Adjustment
    Process of setting the correct amount of free play in the release mechanism.

    Clutch Cable
    A simple mechanical arrangement that uses a cable to transmit clutch pedal movement to the clutch fork.

    Clutch Chatter
    A condition in which clutch severely vibrates as car accelerates.

    Clutch Disc
    A disc that is splined to transmission input shaft and pressed against the face of the flywheel.

    Clutch Fork
    Lever that forces the throw-out (release) bearing into pressure plate of clutch.

    Clutch Lining
    Frictional material riveted to the face of the clutch disk.

    Clutch Linkage
    A mechanical arrangement of levers and rods that transmits force from the clutch pedal to the clutch fork.

    Clutch Master Cylinder
    The device that produces the hydraulic pressure needed to operate the clutch.

    Clutch Pedal Free Travel
    Distance the pedal moves before the throw-out bearing acts on the pressure plate.

    Clutch Pilot Shaft
    Tool used to keep clutch disc from falling as pressure plate is loosened during clutch disassembly.

    Clutch Piston
    A piston that moves back and forth inside the clutch drum to clamp driving and driven discs together.

    Clutch Release Mechanism
    Cable or linkage permitting driver to disengage clutch with foot pedal.

    Clutch Slippage
    Condition in which engine rpm increases without increase in car's road speed.

    Clutch Start Switch
    Safety switch that prevents starting motor operation until the clutch is disengaged.

    Abbreviation for carbon monoxide, a toxic byproduct of partial burning of fuel.

    C02 Readings
    Used to evaluate the air-fuel ratio of the engine; measured in percent by volume.

    Coast Side
    Concave side of gear tooth.

    Cogged Belt
    Rubber belt with built-in cogs (teeth) that engage the teeth of camshaft and crankshaft sprockets to form a positive drive.

    Coil Oscillations
    Voltage fluctuations shown on an oscilloscope after the spark plug stops firing.

    Coil Spring
    Length of spring steel rod wound into a spiral.

    Coil Spring Compressor
    Tool used to safely compress a spring for removal or installation on a vehicle.

    Coil Wire
    Conductor carrying high voltage from the coil to the distributor.

    Cold Cranking Rating
    The amount of current a battery can deliver for 30 seconds at 0~F

    Cold Plug
    One with a short insulator tip, used in engines operated at high speed.

    Cold Soak Cleaner
    Cleaning method using unheated solvents to remove oil and grease from disassembled engine parts.

    Cold Start Injector
    Valve that supplies extra fuel for cold starts.

    Combination Valve
    One that includes both a suction valve and an expansion valve (used in air conditioning systems). Also braking system valve that can function as a metering or proportioning valve and a brake warning light switch.

    Combination Wrench
    One that has an open jaw on one end and a box (closed end) on the other.

    Combustion Chamber
    Area at the top of the cylinder where a spark plug ignites the compressed air-fuel mixture.

    Combustion Leak Test
    Test that checks for presence of combustion gases in cooling system.

    Sliding electrical connection between motor windings and brushes.

    Commutator End Frame
    The end housing on a motor, holding the brushes, brush springs, and shaft bushing.

    Compact Spare
    Small-diameter spare tire for use in emergencies.

    Compression Gauge
    Dial indicator used to measure cylinder compression.

    Compression Ignition
    Ignition of an air-fuel mixture by heat that results from high pressure (compression).

    Compression Pressure
    The amount of pressure produced in the cylinder by the compression stroke.

    Compression Ratio
    The relationship of cylinder volumes with the piston at TDC and at BDC.

    Compression Ring
    Ring that fills the gap between the piston and cylinder wall, preventing blow-by of compression pressure into the crankcase.

    Compression Stroke
    Piston stroke that compresses the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder.

    Compression Test
    To check of the compression developed in each engine cylinder and is a means of determining engine condition.

    Device that pressurizes a refrigerant and forces it through a refrigeration system.

    Compressor Assembly
    Motor-powered air pump that produces pressure for an electronic height-control system.

    Compressor Housing
    Outer case around the compressor wheel section of turbocharger.

    Compressor Shaft Seal
    A common point of refrigerant leakage in a system.

    Compressor Wheel
    Fan-like wheel that forces air, under pressure, into the engine's intake manifold.

    Electronic device used to control many systems of modern vehicles.

    Computer Amplifier
    Device that strengthens signals inside the computer.

    Computer Analyzer
    A more complex testing instrument than a scanner.

    Computer Clock
    Pacing device that keeps all input, processing, and output operations "in step."

    Computer-Coil Ignition
    A distributor less ignition system using sensors, a control unit, and multiple ignition coils.

    Computer Conditioner
    Interface that converts digital signals to analog and vice versa.

    Computer Controlled Carburetor
    One that calculates and sets air-fuel ratio based on input from sensors.

    Computer Harness Connector
    Plug at the end of a wiring harness, with one prong for each wire.

    Computerized Emission Control System
    A computer controlled system that uses sensors, a catalytic converter, and fuel injection to minimize emissions of harmful substances.

    Computer Memory
    Storage area where data is held electronically.

    Computer Menu
    The list of tasks or programs initially shown on a computer screen

    Computer Scan Values
    Output from the vehicle's computer system that can be read by a diagnostic scanner.

    Computer Terminal Values
    Voltage and resistance values at the ECU connector, read by a digital VOM.

    Computer Trouble Codes
    Numeric codes, shown on a display or as pulses, that indicate the nature or location of a problem.

    Computer Voltage Regulator
    Device that provides a very smooth DC voltage for circuits and devices controlled by the computer.

    Change from a gas to a liquid state.

    An electrical component in contact point distributors that prevents arcing as points open and close. Also, a device that allows refrigerant to give off absorbed heat and change from a gas back to a liquid state.

    Method of heat transfer through direct contact.

    A material that permits easy flow of electrons.

    Connecting Rod
    Part that fastens the piston to the crankshaft.

    Connecting Rod Side Clearance
    Distance between side of the connecting rod and the side of the crankshaft journal.

    Constant Velocity Joint
    One that uses two cross-and-roller joints connected by a centering socket and center yoke.

    Contact Pattern
    The area of a gear tooth where the matching gear's tooth physically contacts it.

    Contact Point Regulator
    An older type of voltage regulator that has largely been replaced by the electronic type.

    Contact Points
    In older distributors, the spring-loaded electrical "make/break" switch contacts.

    Continuous Injection
    Fuel injection that is constant.

    Continuously Variable Transmission
    One that has an infinite number of driving ratios and uses belts and pulleys, rather than planetary gear sets.

    Control Arm Bushing
    Sleeve that allows control arm to swing up and down.

    Control Arms
    Movable lever arm that forms part of a vehicle's suspension system.

    Control Rod
    A toothed shaft that rotates control sleeves to control the output of a diesel injector pump.

    Control Sleeve
    Rotating sleeve around the plunger of a diesel injection pump that helps control pump output.

    A method of heat transfer through air or fluid medium.

    Conventional Measuring System
    The system of feet, inches, pounds, etc., traditionally used in the United States.

    Converter Housing
    Case containing the fluid coupling (torque converter) used with an automatic transmission.

    Cooling System
    Radiator and other components that allow a coolant to circulate and maintain a constant engine operating temperature.

    Cooling System Hydrometer
    Test instrument used to check specific gravity of coolant.

    Cooling System Pressure Test
    A method of checking for leaks by placing system under pressure.

    Cooperative Training
    Work release program combining school classes with work experience.

    CO Readings
    When reading CO levels, an exhaust analyzer provides a percentage by volume output.

    Cotter Pin
    A soft metal pin that fits through hole in a nut and is then spread to lock components in place.

    A Shaft on which cluster gears are mounted that transmits force from input gears to output gears.

    Countershaft Gear
    Cluster of gears in a manual transmission that transmit force from input gears to output gears.

    Sub-frame supporting the engine of some vehicles.

    Lower portion of the block, containing the crankshaft.

    Crank Position Sensor
    Similar to a distributor pickup coil, the sensor is activated by the teeth on a pulse ring in a crankshaft triggered ignition system.

    Component that changes the up-and-down motion of the pistons into rotating motion.

    Crankshaft End Play
    End-to-end movement of crankshaft in block.

    Crankshaft Front Oil Seal
    Component that keeps oil from leaking between the crankshaft snout and the engine front cover.

    Crankshaft Position Sensor
    Device to monitor engine speed.

    Crankshaft Pulley
    Pulley, attached to harmonic balancer, that drives belts for alternator and other units.

    Crankshaft Triggered Ignition
    System that places trigger wheel and pickup coil on the crankshaft damper at the front of the engine.

    Crankshaft Turning
    Grinding or otherwise smoothing the surface of crankshaft rod and main journals to repair damage or wear.

    A low, wheeled cart used to work under a car supported by jackstands.

    Crimping Pliers
    Special tool used to mechanically fasten connectors to wires.

    Crisscross Pattern
    Typical pattern used to tighten cylinder head bolts to provide even pressure.

    Type of radiator arrangement with tubes running horizontally.

    Crossover Pipe
    Connector between left and right header pipes in a dual exhaust system, used to equalize backpressure.

    Curb Height
    Distance from a given point on the car to the ground.

    Curb Weight
    Weight of vehicle with full gas tank and no passengers or cargo.

    The flow of electrons through a conductor.

    Cushioning Springs
    Flat springs under the friction material on the clutch disc that help smooth the clutch engagement.

    Constant velocity.

    CV-Joint Repair Kit
    Kit containing joint components, replacement boot, grease, and other necessary items for joint repair.

    The study of how electrical-mechanical devices can duplicate actions of the human body.

    Cylinder Balance Test
    Oscilloscope test that measures the power output from each of the engines cylinders.

    Cylinder Block
    Another name for the engine block, or main body of the engine.

    Cylinder Bore
    Diameter of the engine cylinder.

    Cylinder Boring
    Machining of cylinder walls to make them perfectly straight and smooth, removing signs of wear and damage.

    Cylinder Head
    Component that bolts to the top of the engine, enclosing the tops of the cylinders.

    Cylinder Head Stand
    A fixture used to hold the cylinder head off the workbench surface.

    Cylinder Hone
    A tool used to develop a pattern of fine scratches on cylinder walls to aid in new ring break-in.

    Cylinder Leakage Tester
    Instrument used to determine amount of air leakage from combustion chamber.

    Cylinder Out-of-Roundness
    Condition in which a cylinder diameter is different when measured front-to-back than when measured side-to-side.

    Cylinder Sleeving
    The practice of inserting a liner into a bored cylinder to restore it to its original diameter.

    Cylinder Taper
    The slight difference in diameter, due to wear, from the top to the bottom of an engine cylinder.

    Cylinder Wear
    When the natural up and down movement of the engines piston physically erodes the cylinder walls.

    Dash Light Code
    The Morse type trouble code conveyed by a flashing light on dashboard.

    Dash Warning Light
    A labeled indicator that lights to show there is a problem of malfunction.

    Direct current.

    DC Generator
    Device that produces direct current.

    Dead Axle
    A solid, straight rear axle on a front-wheel-drive vehicle.

    Dead Battery
    One that has become discharged.

    Dead Cylinder
    One in which the spark plug is not firing.

    Decimal Conversion Chart
    Table showing equivalent quantities in fractions of an inch, decimal fractions, and millimeters.

    Deck Warpage
    Twisting or distortion of engine block surfaces as a result of overhearing.

    Delivery Valve
    Spring-loaded valves in the outlet fittings to diesel injector pump.

    Explosive, uneven burning of fuel causing engine knock.

    Diagnosis Chart
    A listing of problem causes and corrections.

    Diagnostic Connector
    A terminal to which a diagnostic scanner can be connected to check vehicle operation.

    Diagonally Split
    Term for a braking system that has each master cylinder piston actuating wheel cylinders that are diagonally opposed.

    Drawings that are used to show wiring, vacuum, or hydraulic systems.

    Dial Bore Gauge
    A tool used to quickly and accurately measure cylinder taper.

    Dial Indicator
    A device used to measure tiny movements and display the distance on a dial.

    Diaphragm Spring Clutch
    One that uses a single diaphragm spring, rather than several coil springs, to help release the clutch disk.

    Tool for cutting threads on the outside of a rod or shaft.

    Diesel Cylinder Balance Test
    Diagnostic procedure to determine whether cylinders are firing properly.

    Diesel Engine Maintenance
    Since diesel engines do not have ignition systems, maintenance (tune-up) work is primarily devoted to making adjustments, changing oil, and replacing filters.

    Diesel Fuel Grade
    Viscosity rating of a diesel fuel.

    Continued engine operation with the ignition turned off (also called "run-on").

    Diesel Injection
    A mechanical system that forces diesel oil directly into combustion chambers.

    Diesel Injection System Tester
    Device used to test a number of diesel components and functions by checking pressures.

    Diesel Maximum Speed Adjustment
    A limitation that can be set by using an adjusting screw on the injection pump.

    Diesel Tachometer
    Device used to establish the revolutions per minute of a diesel engine.

    An assembly of gears used to provide power to the rear axles and allow them to rotate at different speeds as necessary.

    Differential Carrier
    Component used to mount the differential assembly on the rear axle housing.

    Differential Case
    Case that holds the ring gear, spider gear, and inner ends of the axles.

    Differential Lubricant
    High viscosity oil used to reduce friction between differential components.

    Differential Yoke
    Component that connects the rear universal of the drive line to the differential.

    Digital Code
    Trouble code displayed as actual digits (numbers), rather than flashes.

    Digital Display
    An oscilloscope that displays a numerical reading (digital display) on a separate screen.

    Digital Pyrometer
    An electronic device for making accurate temperature measurements.

    Digital Signal
    One made up of strictly on-off (or high-low) pulses.

    Dimmer Switch
    A switch that controls high-beam and low-beam headlamp functions.

    Electronic device that allows current flow in only one direction.

    Diode Test
    Check for open or shorted conditions in a diode, using an ohmmeter or special test equipment.

    Strip of stiff metal used to check fluid levels. Markings indicate whether more fluid must be added.

    Disc Brakes
    Brakes using a caliper that clamps against a rotor for stopping.

    Disc Brake Service
    Procedure involving worn pad replacement, caliper rebuilding, rotor surfacing, and system bleeding.

    Flowing out (describing current movement related to a battery).

    Disc Resurfacing
    Machining the rotor surface to remove wear marks or correct runout.

    Disc Runout
    Amount of side-to-side movement of brake disc (rotor).

    The volume displaced by the pistons in moving from BDC to TDC.

    Display Output
    Actuator that provides readable characters on a small screen or liquid crystal display.

    Distilled Water
    Water that has been purified.

    Distributor Cap
    A plastic, insulating cover that encloses the distributor rotor and other components.

    Distributor Injection Pump
    A pump that uses one or two cylinders to handle injection of diesel fuel for an engine, as compared to an inline pump with a plunger for each cylinder.

    Distributor Point Gap
    Recommended distance between points when fully open.

    Distributor Rotor
    A slotted shaft on a distributor injector pump that controls fuel flow to each nozzle.

    Distributor Tester
    Test device used to check operation of an ignition system distributor.

    Distributor Wrench
    A specially shaped wrench that allows technician to reach under distributor housing to adjust timing.

    Diverter Valve
    Component that prevents air from entering the exhaust system during deceleration.

    Dual Overhead Cam engine.

    DOT Number
    The Department of Transportation code that indicates the tire has passed required safety rests. It also identifies manufacturer, construction type, and other data.

    Double Lap Flare
    Approved method of preparing steel fuel lines for connection.

    Type of radiator arrangement with tubes running vertically.

    Dragging Brakes
    Braking friction material that remains partially applied, even after the brake pedal is released.

    Dragging Clutch
    Failure of friction disc to fully disengage from flywheel, even though clutch pedal is depressed.

    Draw-Through Turbo
    A turbocharger located behind the compressor or throttle body. It compresses the air-fuel mixture.

    Drilled Rod
    Connecting rod with an oil passage drilled through its length to deliver oil to the piston pin.

    Drive Chain
    A chain used with some longitudinally mounted engines to transfer power from the engine crankshaft to the transaxle.

    Drive Housing
    Case surrounding the pinion gear on a starter motor.

    Drive Line
    The parts that transfer power from the transmission to the drive wheels.

    Power transistors in a computer that control current flow to actuators.

    Drive Shaft
    Steel tube that transfers rotating motion from transmission to rear wheels of a car.

    Drive Shaft Angle
    The angle at which the drive line meets the differential or the transmission.

    Drive Shaft Assembly
    Components between the transmission and differential, including front and rear yokes, universal joints, and a drive shaft.

    Drive Shaft Balance
    Equal weight distribution around the axis of the shaft.

    Drive Shaft Noise
    Sounds typically caused by worn U-joints, worn slip joints, or a faulty center support bearing.

    Drive Shaft Runout
    Lack of straightness, due to being bent or because of U-joint wear.

    Drive Shaft Vibration
    A rapid oscillation caused by a shaft imbalance or excessive shaft runout.

    Drive Side
    Convex side of gear tooth.

    Drive Size
    The size of the square opening for the handle of a socket wrench set.

    Driving Hub
    Mounting for wheel on end of axle.

    Driving Range
    Distance a vehicle can be driven without refueling.

    Drop Light
    An electrical extension cord with a light bulb in a safety cage attached.

    Dropping Brake Pedal
    Slow descent of brake pedal to floor when brakes are applied. Usually caused by internal leak in master cylinder.

    The housing that holds the parts of a clutch assembly for an automatic transmission.

    Drum Brakes
    System that forces brake shoes against the inside of a rotating drum to stop vehicle.

    Drum Brake Service
    Process that involves dismounting, disassembling, cleaning, and replacing parts as necessary. Usually, shoes are replaced, wheel cylinders replaced or rebuilt, and the drum is turned (resurfaced). System is then reassembled, bled, and tested.

    Drum Grinding
    Sometimes done to remove hard spots on a brake drum.

    Drum Maximum Diameter
    Largest inside diameter allowed for safe operation of drum brakes.

    Drum Resurfacing
    Machining of brake drum to remove surface damage.

    Dry Charged
    Battery that is filled with electrolyte just before being installed in a vehicle.

    Dry Park Test
    Visual check for looseness of steering components.

    Dry Sleeve
    A thin cylinder liner that is not exposed to coolant.

    Dual Reservoir Master Cylinder
    Brake system pump with two pistons and fluid reservoirs for safety.

    Dummy Shaft
    Tool used to drive out countershaft and reverse idler shaft when disassembling manual transmission.

    Dust Cap
    Metal cover on end of axle or spindle to keep grease in and road dirt out of bearings.

    The amount of time distributor points remain closed between openings.

    Dwell Meter
    One that measures point setting in degrees of distributor rotation.

    Dwell Section
    Section of oscilloscope pattern used to identify problems in the distributor or electronic control unit.

    Dwell Signal
    Electronic signal output by carburetor that can be read on a special meter for troubleshooting.

    Dwell Variation
    Change in meter readings indicating distributor wear.

    Dye Penetrate
    A testing material that can be sprayed on aluminum or cast iron engine parts to locate cracks.

    Dynamic Imbalance
    Tire imbalance that causes both up-and-down and side-to-side movement while rotating.

    Instrument used to measure power output and performance of an engine.

    An engine dynamometer, used to measure brake horsepower.

    Electronic control assembly; another name for an automotive computer.

    Electronic control module; another name for an automotive computer.

    Electronic control unit; another name for an automotive computer.

    Effective Plunger Stroke
    The amount of plunger movement that pressurizes fuel in a diesel injector pump.

    Electronic fuel injection.

    EFI Self-Diagnosis
    The ability of an electronic fuel injection system to display trouble codes.

    EFI Tester
    A diagnostic device used with EFI systems that do not feature self-diagnosis.

    EFI Trouble Code
    A digital display or on-off sequence that shows a number code for problem identification.

    EGR Valve
    Air Gas Re-circulation Valve. A valve allowing exhaust gases to re-enter the intake manifold to be burned again, reducing cylinder temperature and some types of toxic emissions.

    Electrical Fire
    One that involves, or begins in, electrical wiring.

    Electric Engine Fan
    One operated by an electric motor, under control of a thermostatic switch.

    Electric Fuel Pump
    An electrical device that uses a rotary motion to move fuel.

    Liquid that surrounds the plates of a battery and allows a free flow of electrons.

    Electronic Advance
    A system that uses sensor input and the vehicle's computer to control spark timing.

    Electronic Airbag System
    System using impact sensors to deploy an airbag that cushions vehicle operator (and in some cases, passengers) in a collision.

    Electronic Coil Module
    Grouping of ignition coils and the control unit needed to operate them.

    Electronic Control Unit
    Another term for a computer used in a vehicle.

    Electronic Ignition System
    One that uses an electronic control circuit and distributor pickup coil points and condensers to break the field of the ignition coil, sending voltage to the spark plug.

    Electronic Ignition Tester
    Instrument used to identify source of ignition problems.

    Electronic Modules
    Small computers in a vehicle, used for specific systems (such as anti-lock brakes or climate control).

    Electronic Regulator
    Solid-state regulator separate from the alternator.

    Electronic Shock Absorber System
    One that uses a computer, actuators, and adjustable shock absorbers to regulate stiffness of the vehicle's suspension.

    Electronic Steering Assist
    Power steering system using an electric motor, rather than hydraulic components.

    Electronic Transmission/Transaxle Control System
    A computer-based system that controls shift points and torque converter lockup for improved fuel economy.

    One of the cells that can be combined to form a battery.

    Emergency Brake
    Mechanical means of applying rear brakes.

    Emission Control System
    Components and adjustments used to reduce the amount of pollutants released by operation of an automobile.

    The propulsion system that provides motive power for a vehicle.

    Engine Analyzer
    Grouping of instruments used to check various engine functions and components.

    Engine Blow-By
    Leakage of unburned fuel and other pollutants past piston rings and into the crankcase.

    Engine Bottom End
    The block, crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, and related components.

    Engine Break-in
    Sequence of acceleration, deceleration, and other operations designed to properly seat and seal new piston rings.

    Engine Crane
    A portable, wheeled hoist used to lift and remove engines from vehicles.

    Engine Efficiency
    Ratio of power produced by the engine to the power supplied to that engine.

    Engine Firing Order
    The sequence in which spark plugs are fired.

    Engine Flooding
    Excess fuel in the intake manifold, preventing starting.

    Engine Front Cover
    Housing of sheet metal or cast aluminum that covers the timing chain or gears.

    Engine Front End
    A combination of components that operates the camshaft.

    Engine Miss
    Roughness in engine operation, indicating failure of a spark plug to fire.

    Engine Off Self-Test
    Test conducted with engine off but ignition key on to cause displaying of trouble codes.

    Engine On Self-Test
    One conducted with the engine fully warmed up, allowing check of the sensors under normal conditions.

    Engine Operating Temperature
    Temperature reached by coolant during normal engine operation.

    Engine Overhaul
    Process of servicing all internal parts of an engine.

    Engine Sensors
    Devices that monitor temperatures, fluid levels, and other engine conditions for computer input.

    Engine Smoke
    Emissions during acceleration or deceleration. Color can indicate engine condition.

    Engine Surge
    Rise and fall of engine speed in cruising operation.

    Engine Temperature Sensor
    Component that measures temperature of engine coolant.

    Engine Top End
    The cylinder heads, valves, camshaft, and related parts.

    Engine Torque
    A rating of turning force at the engine crankshaft.

    Engine Tune-up
    A process of parts replacement and adjustment to return an engine to its peak performance.

    Erasable programmable read-only memory.

    Erasing Trouble Codes
    Removing trouble codes from computer memory after they have been read and the problems corrected.

    Ethyl Alcohol
    Grain alcohol or ethanol.

    A process of removing air and moisture from an emptied air conditioning system, using a vacuum pump.

    A device in which refrigerant changes from a liquid to a gas and absorbs heat from its surroundings.

    Exhaust Gas Analyzer
    Testing device to measure the chemical content of exhaust gases.

    Exhaust Gas Sensor
    See oxygen sensor.

    Exhaust Manifold
    Component that directs output of the exhaust ports to the exhaust system.

    Exhaust Manifold Heat Valve
    A component that forces hot exhaust gases to circulate through intake manifold as an aid to cold-weather starting.

    Exhaust Stroke
    Piston stroke that forces byproducts of combustion out of the cylinder.

    Exhaust System
    Components that quiet engine operation and direct combustion products (exhaust gases) to the rear of the vehicle.

    Metal ring used with two rails to form oil control ring.

    Expansion Plug
    Freeze plug designed for installation in tight quarters.

    Expansion Tube
    A device with a small orifice that meters refrigerant into the evaporator of an air conditioning system.

    Expansion Valve
    Temperature-sensitive valve that controls refrigerant flow and air conditioner evaporator temperature.

    Extension Housing
    A separate housing bolted to the transmission housing, containing the output shaft and rear oil seal.

    External Oil Leakage
    Escape of oil from the engine, usually around gaskets or seals.

    Area of a gear tooth above the pitch line.

    Fast Charge(r):
    A charger or charge that provides a high current flow for quickly recharging a battery.

    Devices that hold parts together.

    Fast Flushing
    Flushing system through a heater hose fitting, without removing the thermostat.

    Fast Idle Cam
    A cam that increases idle speed when the choke is closed.

    Fast Idle Solenoid
    Device that holds throttle plates open when engine is operating, but lets them almost close when engine is shut off.

    Feathered Edge
    One side of each tread rib is worn sharp and raised; the other side is rounded or recessed.

    Feeler Gauge
    A thin metal strip or wire of identified thickness, used to measure clearance.

    Fender Cover
    Cloth or plastic blankets placed over auto body sections to protect the finish while repairs go on.

    Frictional horsepower.

    Field Frame
    Housing on a motor that holds the field coils.

    Field Windings
    Stationary windings in a motor that creates a magnetic field to keep the armature rotating.

    Filler Neck Restriction
    Metal piece preventing introduction of the larger fuel nozzle used for leaded fuel.

    Fill Ring
    Electrolyte level indicator in older style batteries.

    Firing Line
    The tall spike shown on an oscilloscope, representing the voltage needed to make the spark jump the plug gap.

    Firing Order
    Sequence in which the spark plugs fire in cylinders.

    Fixed Caliper
    Brake caliper rigidly mounted to steering knuckle.

    Area on a gear tooth below the pitch line.

    Flex Fan
    One with blades that alter airflow with engine speed.

    Device that rises and falls with fuel level in bowl, opening and closing the needle valve.

    Floating Caliper
    Brake caliper mounted on t\VO rubber bushings, allowing some movement.

    Fluid Contamination
    Inclusion of foreign matter in transmission fluid.

    Fluid Coupling Fan Clutch
    Clutch designed to slip at higher fan speeds.

    Fluid Varnish
    Sticky, glue-like substance resulting from breakdown of automatic transmission fluid.

    Large, heavy wheel mounted on the rear end of the crankshaft. Usually includes a ring gear that is engaged by the starter pinion.

    Frequency modulation (type of radio broadcasting).

    A pushing or pulling action.

    Forward Bias
    Arrangement in which diode acts as a conductor.

    Four-Gas Analyzer
    Measuring instrument that provides the reading of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as HC and CO, levels in exhaust.

    Four-Stroke Cycle
    An engine that takes four piston movements (intake, compression, power, exhaust) to complete a cycle.

    The strong steel structure that supports the body of a vehicle.

    Friction Bearing
    A Plain bearing with two smooth surfaces sliding on each other. Not a tapered bearing with an outside cone used as the race or riding surface.

    Front Cover Gasket
    Thin sealing component that is compressed between the cover and the engine.

    Front Drive Axles
    Shafts that transfer power from the transaxle differential to the vehicle's wheels.

    Front End Rack
    Alignment stand.

    Fuel Accumulator
    Diaphragm that dampens pressure pulses in a fuel injection system.

    Fuel Distributor
    Hydraulically operated valve used to control fuel flow in a continuous injector system.

    Fuel Evaporization System
    A combination of technologies and components that prevents fuel vapors from entering the atmosphere.

    Fuel Heater
    A device used to warm diesel fuel and keep it from jelling into a semi-solid during cold weather.

    Fuel Injection System
    General term for systems used with either gasoline or diesel fuel.

    Fuel Injector
    Fuel valve controlled by a coil or solenoid.

    Fuel Pressure Regulator
    System that controls pressure of fuel entering injector valves.

    Fuel Pump Pressure
    The pressure of a fuel pump's output.

    Fuel Pump Vacuum
    The amount of "pull" exerted on fuel by the pump.

    Fuel Pump Volume
    The amount of fuel discharged by a pump in a measured period.

    Fuel Rail
    Tubing that connects several injectors to the main fuel line.

    Fuel Return System
    One that keeps cool fuel circulating to prevent vapor lock.

    Fuel Tank Capacity
    How much fuel a tank can hold.

    Full-Floating Piston Pin
    One that is free to rotate. It is secured in place with snap rings.

    Full Flow Lubrication System
    One that forces all oil through a filter before it reaches the parts to be lubricated.

    Fully Synchronized Transmission
    One in which all forward gears are equipped with synchronizers to allow downshifting while in motion.

    Device that interrupts current if a circuit is overloaded or a short occurs.
    Injection is good,but I'd rather be blown!

  3. #27
    Član od
    Novi Beograd/Topcider
    ford focus sport pack
    m-motosport,trebalo bi
    FORD FOCUS 1.6 16V SPORT PACK 2008god. LPG

  4. #28
    Član od
    @Dr Boca

    YAW Avtive control - aktivna kontrola nagiba sasije, na Lancerima EVO serije od 6 pa nadalje, putem senzora se odredjuje koliko se sasija naginje u krivini, i na osnovu toga kompluter menja karakteristike trapa/oslanjanja tockova i podesavanja diferencijala u krivini da se ostvari 100% kontakta gume sa podlogom.


    VVTI - Toyotin sistem varijabilne kontrole ventila, kao VANOS kod BMW-a, V-TEC kod Honde, itd..,

    TRD - Toyota Racing Division, sportsko odeljenje Toyote, kao M kod BMW-a, Hondin Mugen...
    The difference between men and boys is the price of their toys

  5. #29
    Član od
    Banovo Brdo
    Jos uvek niko da se baci na prevodjenje , jer ovako opet ostaje nedoreceno.
    Ajde nek neko baci prevode oznaka na uljima, ACEA A2/B2/E2, API SH/CD,CCMC... ne mogu da pronadjem gde su mi , a mislim da ce mnoge zanimati.

  6. #30
    Član od
    Beograd, Dorcol, N 44
    Pa to su standardi, ne moze da se objasni u dve reci
    1996 SAAB 900 NG Cabrio

  7. #31
    Član od
    Bg; Banovo Brdo
    Corsa, astra, senic
    ACEA- (Asocijacija evropskih konstruktora automobila),te proizvodjaci motora: VW,MAN,MB,VOLVO i dr.

    API- Americki institut za naftu.

    Za znacenje ostalih detaljnih oznaka poslao sam ti pp.
    To date there has never been a faster car built for the public road and,
    it has been suggested, there never will be. McLaren F1.

  8. #32
    Član od
    ALB -Anti-Lock Brakes (Japanese ABS) )

  9. #33
    Član od
    4WS- 4 wheel steering
    (pri malim brzinama zadnji tockovi se okrecu suprotno od prednjih, a preko 30kmh, u istom pravcu kao i prednji (nekih 20-30%))
    ... Boze, dozvoli mi da ti dokazem da me novac nece iskvariti...

  10. #34
    Član od
    Backi Jarak, NS
    Alfa 156 1.8 TS
    BAS- Brake Assist Sistem - elektronski uređaj koji prepoznaje brzo (panično) premeštanje noge sa papučice gasa na pedalu kočnice i momentalno podiže pritisak u hidrauličnom sistemu

    Citirati Originalno postavljeno od SALE
    Jos uvek niko da se baci na prevodjenje , jer ovako opet ostaje nedoreceno.
    Ajde nek neko baci prevode oznaka na uljima, ACEA A2/B2/E2, API SH/CD,CCMC... ne mogu da pronadjem gde su mi , a mislim da ce mnoge zanimati.
    Klasifikacija Društva automobilskih inženjera (Society of Automotive Engineers - SAE) - klasifikuje ulja prema njihovoj viskoznosti. Motorna ulja mogu biti monogradna ili multigradna, u zavisnosti od njihovih viskoznih karakteristika na različitim temperaturama.

    Klasifikacija Američkog instituta za naftu (American Petroleum Institute - API) - motorna ulja klasifikuje prema njihovoj sposobnosti da zaštite motor. Slovo S u oznaci obeležava motorna ulja namenjena benzinskim motorima, a slovo C motorna ulja za dizel motore. Naredno slovo u oznaci označava nivo kvaliteta i zaštitu, koji se obeležavaju slovima od A za najnižu do X za najvišu. Neka ulja mogu da se koriste i u benzinskim i u dizel motorima, pa je njihova kvalifikacija SJ/CF ili CF-4/SJ.

    Klasifikacija Asocijacije evropskih proizvođača vozila (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d'Automobiles - ACEA) - ova klasifikacija je veoma slična API klasifikaciji, sa tom razlikom da se API oslanja na testove na američkim, a ACEA na evropskim motorima. ACEA takođe koristi slova za obeležavanje klasifikacija.
    Bolje biti sretan nego pametan

  11. #35
    Član od
    Toyota Corolla D4D
    power steering pressure switch - ako bi neko bio ljubazan, da mi pojasni, na srpskom, koju funkciju obavlja ovaj prekidac?
    Long Live CBC!!!

  12. #36
    Član od
    Fiat 131 1300
    Meni zvuci kao city dugme kod Fiata.

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